For modeling the Roman Army on the march I have used three main sources for the constituents of the army and the order of march:: Harry Pratt Judson, Caesar's Army, Peter Connolly, Greece and Rome at War, and John Peddie, The Roman War Machine. Supplemental information about mules as pack animals, horse-drawn carts and ox-drawn wagons comes from J. G. Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World and information about draft animals from several websites. The full references for the books are listed in the bibliograpy page. Summaries of some of the material from these sources follows.
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Judson writing in 1888, relies in part on even earlier authors such as Rüstow and Göler. Though more recent discoveries have improved our understanding of the Roman army, Judson wrote from a time that was closer to the non-technological world than we are today and therefore had experiences that were closer to those of the ancients. The armies of his day, for example, still relied on mules and horses and, within recent history, had drilled and fought in close order formations. In addition, he gives more intricate detail in some respects than modern authors. For these reasons I consider him a useful, but not definitive, source.
The key elements of Judson's model are summarized below.
Contubernium, 10 men are assigned to one tent, eight sleeping, two on watch. They have one pack animal to carry the tent and other supplies and a servant to handle the animal. To simplify the model all pack animals are considered to be mules, animals ridden (by the cavalry and officers) are horses and oxen are not included.
Cavalry: The normal Ala formation was 40' wide so that it could move in formation on the 40' road. On a 20' road the Cavalry would march by Turma, 8 ranks of 4 files. He allows 10' for each rank and 5' for each file.
Servants: One servant is assigned to each mule. Since servants do not keep watch, there is one tent for each 8 servants.
Legatus: One to command each legion under the general.
Quaestor: One to the army.
Contubernales, comites praetorii: Young nobles accompanying the general as aides. He does not specify a number.
Apparitores: Lictors, scribes and servants. No numbers given.
Body-guard: Again, no numbers are given. They are described as sometimes drawn from the army, sometimes drawn from the Evocati, sometimes hired mercenaries.
Evocati: Retired legionaries serving as a special corps at the invitation of the general, their former commander in some cases. They were formed into regular centuries but served a variety of functions including orderlies, scouts and protection of the general.
Fabri: Engineers, led by the Praefectus Fabrum. Some may have been leginaries, others would have been specialists. No numbers are given.
Antisignani: Although disputed by some of his authorities, Judson says that each maniple may have had one contubernium, 10 men, who were Antesignani. They would operate in front of the legion as light troops or skirmishers. They marched without heavy baggage. Caesar, he says, "regarded the body as a school for centurions."
Mules: Load. The maximum load for a mule is given as 200 lbs. Number. There are between 520 and 640 per legion, depending on the actual strength of the legion. Spacing. In the march he allows 10' for each rank and 5' for each file.
Rations: He gives the daily food ration as 1.66 pounds. Soldier carry rations for up to 17 days and a total pack of up to 30 to 45 pounds, in addition to their arms and armor.
Artillery: There are two types, the catapultae (bolt throwers) and ballistae (rock throwers). The catapult weighs between 84 pounds (smallest) and 600 pounds (largest). The ballista weighs about 200 pounds. The quantities are unknown until Vegetius wrote that each legion had 55 carroballisate (smaller ballistae) and 10 onagri. Since no mention is made of wheeled transport, all artillery items are considered to be carried on mules.
Tents: The standard soldier's tent is 10 feet square and weighs 40 pounds.
Men. Judson allow 3' width to each file and 4' for each rank. His description is based on units of either 10 or 5 files, depending on the whether the road was 40' or 20' wide. road.
Mules. He allows 5' for each rank and 10' for each file.
Pace. He cites Vegetius' data for the militari gradu, 40,000 steps of 2.5 ft and quick step, 48,000 steps in 5 hours. 100 or 120 steps per minute. He references Uptons Tactic's, a manual in use by the U. S. army in the 1800's which prescribed a step of 30 inches from heel to heel and a cadence of 100 and 120 steps; "exactly the Roman standard." Distance.
Roads. He bases his descriptions on road widths of either 40' or 20'. He notes Caesar mad his bridge over the Rhine 40' wide; evidence, he believes, of the standard marching width of the Roman column. In a 40' span he places 10 files, on a 20' road he places 5 files.
The van (primum agmen) the main body (exercitus, omnes copiae, agmen legionum) and the rear-guard (agmen novissimum, agmen extremum). In the main body each legion may have been followed by its own baggage or all of the baggage could be gathered together. If the latter then the baggage came about 3/4 of the way back in the column with the remaining (claudunt agmen) bringing up the rear.
With its baggage a Legion would extend something 2,050 to 3,900 feet, depending on its actual strength.
The average march, he says, would have been 14.6 to 19.5 English miles, depending on the amount of daylight. Again he cites the U. S. army standard of 15 to 20 miles with a rest every 10 minutes.
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John Peddie wrote in 1994, some 106 years after Judson's book. He brings the benefit of modern reserarch to the description and gives a detailed analysis of the army that is useful in constructing models. He also bases his description on the army of Julius Caesar. A summary of his points are:
Contubernium: 8 men with a servant and mule.
Servants: He seems to imply that general animal handlers may have handled two mules each but he assigns one servant to each of the contubernium mules to care for the mule and serve the needs of the soldiers.
Cavalry: He assigns the standard of 120 Roman cavalry per legion. For the entire army he has an auxiliary cavalry force of 4,000.
Legion staff: He notes that the typical descriptions of legion makeup does not include many who would be in the headquarters staff such as ancillary troops, clerks, technician, specialists, reserve tentage, extra weapons, clothing cavalry equipment, field hospital, medical staff, veterinary staff, engineering stores and bridging equipment, artificers workshops,. He cites some descriptions from Caesar to support an idea of 300 to 500 sick at any given time, leading to the belief that their would have had to have been some substantial hospital and ambulance presence in the army.
Horses: He calculates 120 Roman cavalry to the Legion, its normal complement.
Mules: Number. To pull the cars there would have had to be 300. Add to that 125 to carry a reserve of rtions and 850 for general duty -- 600 assigned to the contubernium, 250 for staff officers and other supporting services. He has a total number of baggage animals of 1130 for a legion and 8,750 for the 6 legion army. That is 1,970 over those assigned to the legions, these would have supported the auxiliary troops, headquarters staff and cavalry. Spacing: He allows 15 feet per rank of mule or horse and 30' per cart. He has both mules and carts march 2 abreast. Pace. He describes Caesar's light duty two wheeled carts as capable of 4 mph. Load. he assignes 43,750 men to the legion, each with a food requirement of 3 pounds per day. He has 1,250 mules carrying a two day supply and notes that this is the equivalent of 112 wagons. 43,750 x 6 pounds / 1,250 mules = 210 pounds per mule; / 112 wagons = 2,343.75 pounds per wagon.
Total Army Makeup: He bases his description on a 6 legion army with the following troop and animal numbers:
Legionary troops -- 30,000
Ancillary troops -- 3,500
Gallic cavalry wing -- 4,000
Roman cavalry -- 720
Servants -- 6250
Horses -- 4,720 (not including those for officers)
Mules -- hauling the reserve rations -- 1,250 (750 for the 6 legions and 500 for the rest of the army)
Mules -- hauling the rest of the baggage and equipment -- 7,500.
Tents: Standard. He describes the standard tent as 10 by 10. Centurion. The centurion's tent was 10' by 20' wide and was probably carried on a small two wheeled cart pulled by two mules and driven by a servant. The cart would also have carried extra gear and supplies for the century and been a place to store personal gear in the case of battle. Tribune and officer. The tribune's tent was taller, on a box-like structure of poles. General. The general's tent may have been huge. He says that the marquee of the general's tent was some 200 square feet. Caesar, he notes, even carried a mosaic floor in sections.
Carts: Use. Although not used extensively, he believes the Roman army would have used small mobile two wheeled carts pulled by two animals (mules, horses or oxen) for at least some of the baggage. Number. Each legion would have had 60 carts for its artillery, 60 for the centurions, and another 30 for "sundry" needs such as ambulances, engineering supplies. Pace. He describes Caesar's light duty two wheeled carts as capable of 4 mph.
Food: He estimates the daily grain requirements at 3 lbs per day for each man. He believes each man carried 10 day's rations (30 pounds) with another 2 days rations being carried on the mules. He assigns 125 mules per legio for this "ration reserve" function but has 1,250 for the army as a whole. "Ration reserve" may mean that they carry rations for two days and then act as a reserve for forage or loot or other needs. The mule-borne rations would be consumed first to free those mules to carry found foraging and or booty.
Artillery: Ballistae. The smallest ballista had arms 2' long, powered by skeins 4" in diameter. The largest had arms 4' long and was powered by skeins 6' to 8" in diameter. He notes that Galwey estimated that the ballista could throw a 6 to 8 lb. stone 450 to 500 yards. Onager. The Onager was known all along but only came into general use quite late when the more complicated but more efficient ballistae went out of use. He estimates the weight of an Onager as 2 to 6 tons. It probably had a range 400 to 500 yards. Onagri were not used in the field but were only for sieges Number. By the time of Vegetius 10 onagri were assigned to a legion, or 1 per cohort, one carrroballista per century. Probalby the artillery was not actually distributed to those units, it is more likely that the artillery was centrally concentrated and that the description reflects a formula to determine the number each legion would have. Staff. Although there is no direct evidence he believes there would have been an artillery commander, a principalis, in overall charge. Similarily, each Carroballista would need a junior commander, an aimer, 1 or 2 men to turn the winch, and 1 or 2 animal handlers who could also help re-supply ammunition. He assigns a total 10 to the carroballista. Vegetius suggested that a team of 11 men were required for each. The Onager , especially the larger ones, would have required more men. The total artillerymen per legion woudl be about 650, plus artificers. They were sometimes called ballistarii. They may not have been in special units, but may have been drawn from the regular leginary force. However, after 300 AD they were assembled into their own units. : Transport. He assignes one cart to each of the 60 carroballistae.
Booty: He notes that the army may acquire considerable booty as it conquered land and cities. He does not attempt to cite any specific number of animals or servants or hostages asociated with booty.
Men. He notes the annoyance of having the man behind step on the heels of the one in front and corresondingly allows each rank a full 6' (3' for the man and 3' between men). He does not specify the width of the file but has them 6 abreast.
Mules and carts. He places carts 2 abreast and allows 30 feet for each rank. He does not specify the width of the file for mules but allows each rank 15'.
Pace. The legions marched at 3 miles per hour. He notes in one place that the carts were capable of 4 miles per hour, in another place he estimates their actual speed as less than that of the legions.
Scouts. An advance force was sent in front of the army to scout for enemy ambushes. This force was composed of about 1,000 cavalry pluse some light infantry of archers and slingers. They operated about 800 to 900 yards (roughly 1/2 mile) in front of the vanguard.
Flank. He places 1,000 cavalry on each flank as protection from ambush.
Rear Guard. He places the final 1,000 of the auxiliary cavalry with the rear guard.
He describes the army moving out of one camp and into next camp. The description is based on a march pace 3 mph, a distance of 10 miles between camps, and an overall length of the column of 22.5 miles. Times given are elapsed time from the time of departure.
00 Reconnaissance units (Scouts) depart
10m Vanguard departs followed by the command group and then the main body
3h20m Reconnaissance arrives at camp II
3h30m Vanguard arrives at camp II
3h30 Camp II layout begins
3h30m Head of baggage train departs camp I
4hrs Protective screen deployed as the first legion arrives at camp II
4hr30m Fortifications begin as the second legion arrives
6h30m Tail of main body arrives camp II
7h Head of the baggage train arrives at camp II; it moves at a slightly slower march rate than main body
7h30m Forticifcations complete
12h Tail of the baggage train arrives at camp II.
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Landels discusses the role of horses, oxen and wheeled transport in the ancient world. Some salient points are as follows:
Transport: The preferred method of land transport was by mule pack. The use of wagons was limited because without the horse collar neither horses, mules nor donkeys could pull heavy loads and oxen were slow. Human labor moved lighter weights. The maximum human load that could be carried more than a short distance, 40 or 50 yards, was 50 to 60 pounds. Anything larger required pack animals. The very heavy loads were drawn by oxen in wagons.
Mules: They were normally from a female horse and male donkey, were preferred over horses for several reasons: they were less temperamental, easier to train, their skin is tougher and less easily damaged, can tolerate extremes of heat and cold better, requires less water, needs less sleep (4 to 5 hours per night), its hooves are harder and is more sure-footed. The mule walks at just over 3 miles per hour but can cover up to 50 miles a day over level ground and lightly loaded. Because of these advantages, pack mules were widely used throughout the world until this century. Evidence seems to indicate that ancient mules were roughly the size of modern mules: between 52 and 60 inches at the withers (13 to 15 hands), the largest as high as 64 inches, weighing between 6000 and 900 pounds, able to carry 30% of their weight (25% on hilly ground). The load could be between 200 pounds for a smaller mule and as high as 270 pounds for a large one. An important restriction was that the weight had to be evenly divided on either side of the pannier. If a single large weight, a stone, for example, were carried then the mule could only bear about half the weight.
Donkeys: They were also used, though it seems that mules were preferred. They are smaller than mules, between 36 and 60 inches at the withers, carrying proportionately smaller loads. A small donkey could carry about 120 pounds, a large one the same as a mule.
Horses: Ancient horses were probably about the same size as the mules. Large draft horses were not known in ancient times. Four well-bred horses might have been able to pull 2 to 3 tons at about 4 to 5 miles per hour. But the ancients actually used them to pull light loads, such as a chariot and its driver, maybe 440 pounds at a relatively fast pace. Horse drawn fast vehicles could average about 7 mph over the course of a day.
Oxen: Oxen can pull 1.5 times their body weight but can travel only 1 miles per hour, less if there are obstacles in their way. However they do have advantages in feeding since they can consume 1.5 times 3% instead of 2% of their body weight. They can survive on lower quality food since they can eat more of it. One ancient formula says that they should be fed 15 lbs. of hay and 15 to 20 pounds of mash per day --
Carts and Wagons: Two wheeled Carts and four wheeled wagons were both used. Oxen were used for the wagons and the heavy carts. Horses were used for light fast 2-wheeled carts, usually personal transport. A difficulty with the two heeled heavy carts was that the load had to be precisely balanced over the wheels or it would exert pressure on the pole either down on the yoke or up on the girth strap. There may have been a standard gauge for wagons of 112 to 114 cm. This is found in grooves worn by wagon wheels in various places. Heavy wagons were usually drawn by oxen, horses were used only for light fast transport. Both carts and wagons were designed to be drawn by two animals. The method of attaching them to the vehicles was yoke and pole, suitable for oxen but not for horses since the yoke choked the horse if too heavy a load were pulled. The horse collar was not invented until centuries later.
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http://www.wmich.edu/tillers/index.html The Tillers homepage. It gives a great deal of information about the use of draft animals, including mules and oxen. The site has details on how the yokes and bows are fitted and their sizes. It notes details such as that the rings that accept the wagon tongues are 4.25" inside diameter and bows come in 2" increments up to 14". "For your animals to work well, they need well fitted bows. If too narrow, they pinch the neck as they slide back; if too wide, they bruise the shoulders as the oxen step forward into loads."
http://www.ruralheritage.com/ A page for information about draft animals of all kinds with special pages for oxen and mules.
"I was struck by the importance of yoke fit and design. ... I had worked with a number of pairs
in West Africa... I began training with a simple yoke like I had used in the African project. It had a pole for
a beam, steel rods for bows, and a clevis extending behind the beam for hitching. After a few weeks the team pulled
a stone boat willingly, but if I stepped onto it, they would stop.
"Then I placed an historic yoke on the team. They did not mind its extra weight and readily pulled the stone boat. I
stepped on and they continued to pull without hesitation. A second person got on and the team still pulled. It took the
weight of a third person to discourage them. I was amazed that changing the yoke permitted adding about 330 pounds
(150 kg) to their load. I immediately started analyzing that old yoke and reading...about traditional yoke design and
dynamics. Obviously these yokes were superior in some simple ways."
http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/Forestry/AppalFor/draftl.html A page on the use of draft animals to skid logs, perhaps one of the few remaining modern uses of draft animals. The page gives the following summary of the pros and cons for various draft animals:
Pair of oxen costs about as much as a single horse or mule.
Oxen require only a yoke, horses and mules require elaborate harnesses.
Oxen cannot reproduce.
Mules have better judgement or sense, and greater agility, than horses or oxen.
Mules have smaller hooves than horses.
Mules will not overeat, horses will.
Mules will not overheat.
Mules cannot reproduce.
Horses can reproduce.
http://www.cjnetworks.com/~hdparman/kdhma/ The Kansas draft horse and mule association with some links
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/ Breeds of livestock: horses, donkeys, mules, oxen.
http://www.hoof.com/draft/index.html Draft mules with links to draft horses.
http://www.carolinamule.com/ The Carolina Mule Association.
http://www.execpc.com/oxdrover/ A page dedicated to oxen. It describes how oxen are yoked and the commands used to work them. Unlike horses, no harnesses or traces are used with oxen. This site also lists some of the advantages and disadvantages of oxen over horses. A quote from their page:
"Oxen have many advantages over horses and tractors. Oxen have relatively simple equipment that is
cheap and easy to maintain. They tend to be calm and docile. They are cheaper than both the horse
and the tractor or skidder. they can start working at any age. They can stand idle for relatively long
periods with little damage to feet and legs. They can be maintained on a courser diet than the horse.
They can be trained to do almost anything the horse can do. They are less apt to shy, and in the end,
are better to eat.
"The art of driving oxen has remained virtually unchanged for centuries. The common commands used
for driving oxen include Get up, Whoa, Back up, Gee, and Haw. Driving and training a team is relatively
simple once a few basic commands and concepts of animal training and care are learned. Oxen are
driven (actually led) with the use of voice commands and a whip or goad only. No reins, bits, or halters
are needed to work a team."
Links to the nine parts of the March section:
March: The Army
March: a Day's
© 2003, Gary Brueggeman. All rights reserved world wide. No part of this work may be reproduced in part or whole, in any form or by any means, without permission from the author.